Saturday, 7 May 2016


Sex reassignment surgery (male-to-female)

Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female involves reshaping the male genitals into a form with the appearance of, and, as far as possible, the function of female genitalia.
Prior to any surgeries, patients usually undergo hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and, depending on the age at which HRT begins, facial hair removal.
There are associated surgeries patients may elect to, including
facial feminization surgery,
breast augmentation, and various other procedures.

Monday, 2 May 2016


Edema is the medical term for swelling. It is a general response of the body to injury or inflammation. Edema can be isolated to a small area or affect the entire body.

Edema results whenever small blood vessels become "leaky" and release fluid into nearby tissues. The extra fluid accumulates, causing the tissue to swell.

Sunday, 1 May 2016



D-dimer (or D dimer) is a fibrin degradation product (or FDP), a small protein fragment present in the blood after a blood clot is degraded by fibrinolysis.
It is so named because it contains two crosslinked D fragments of the fibrin protein.

Friday, 29 April 2016




Recommended dose in oesophageal candidiasis Adult: As oral liquid: 200 mg daily in 1 or 2 divided doses held in the mouth for sec before swallowing. Recommended dose in prophylaxis of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients Adult: As oral liquid: 5 mg/kg daily in 2 divided doses.. Recommended dose in vulvovaginal candidiasis Adult: As capsule: 200 mg bid for 1 day.

Wednesday, 27 April 2016



In medicine, the nutcracker syndrome (NCS) — is a clinically manifest variant of nutcracker phenomenon, renal vein entrapment syndrome, or mesoaortic compression of the left renal vein.
It results most commonly from the compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta (AA) and superior mesenteric artery(SMA), although other variants exist.


Fungal Infections of the Skin

Fungal infections of the skin are very common and include
athlete's foot,
jock itch,
ringworm, and
yeast infections.

Sunday, 24 April 2016


Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)

 is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. This vascular anomaly is widely known because of its occurrence in the central nervous system, but can appear in any location. Although many AVMs are asymptomatic, they can cause intense pain or bleeding or lead to other serious medical problems.

Saturday, 23 April 2016



 (literally "heart muscle disease") is the measurable deterioration for any reason of the ability of the myocardium (the heart muscle) to contract, usually leading to heart failure. Common symptoms include dyspnea  and peripheral edema.

Monday, 7 March 2016


• Stimulation of Right vagus slows the heart by inhibiting the SA node and stimulation of Left vagus nerve mainly slows the AV conduction

• Stimulation of Right stallete ganglion accelerates the heart and stimulation of Left stellate ganglion shortens the AV nodal conduction

• SA node discharge increases with increase in temperature justifying tachycardia in fever

• ATRIAL FLUTTER: atrial rate is 200-350/min. Mostly there is counterclockwise circuit movement in RIGHT ATRIUM. This produces SAW TOOTH appearance. It is almost always associated with 2:1 or greater AV block. AV node cannot conduct more than 230 impulses per minute.

• ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: atrial rate more than 300-500/min and in irregular way. Ventricles also beat irregularly at 80 to 160/min. Its exact cause is still in debate but most commonly it occurs due to multiple concurrently circulating reentrant excitation waves in BOTH atria. Some cases may also occurs due to discharge of one or more ectopic foci. Many of these foci appear in pulmonary veins s much as 4 cm from the heart. Atrial muscle fibrs extend along pulmonary vein and site of origin of these foci

Aortic/ Pulmonary valve
stenosis=systolic murmur, insufficiency=diastolic

Mitral or tricuspid valve
stenosis =diastolic murmur
insufficiency systolic

• Sleep don’t cause any change on Cardiac output…(its an MCQ…)

• Athletes have greater end systolic volume and stroke volumes and lower heart rates

• Hematocrit is %age of blood occupied by RBCs
( but according to ganong bcq ans is hemotocrit is all platelets,rbc,WBC)

• BP pressure falls upto 20mmHg in sleep… in HTN this fall is reduced or absent…. So normal persons are called DIPPERS and hypertensive persons are called NONDIPPERS

• Noradrenergic fibers end on the vessels in all parts of the body which are mainly vasoconstrictor in function.. resistance vessels in skeletal muscles are innervated by VASODILATOR fibers which although trevel thru the sympethetics but are CHOLINERGIC….. there is some evidence that vessels in heart, lungs , kidneys, and ureters also receive cholinergic innervations

• The afferent nerve fibers from the carotid sinus and carotid body form a distinct branch of glossopharyngeal nerve called CAROTID SINUS NERVE. The carotid sinus nerve and vagal fibers from the aortc arch commonly called the BUFFER NERVES

• During shock the vasoconstriction is most marked in SKIN

Thursday, 3 March 2016


(Concluding Part)


There are three major treatments for diabetic retinopathy, which are very effective in reducing vision loss from this disease. In fact, even people with advanced retinopathy have a 90 percent chance of keeping their vision when they get treatment before the retina is severely damaged.