Friday, 18 April 2014

KUHS-TENTATIVE EXAMINATION CALENDER 2014-2015

Tentative examination dates for MBBS-KUHS (2014-2015) published. It will be as follows..

Tuesday, 15 April 2014

WHY BABIES CRY MORE AT NIGHT?



Did anyone think about it? May be they are hungry, they want their napkin to be changed, have colic, fever , are teething or  tired. But researchers at Harvard University say the baby is delaying the conception of a sibling by keeping Mom exhausted and not ovulating. The report also claims that breast feeding at night extends a mother's 'post-birth infertility', known as amenorrhea.

Author Professor David Haig said in the current issue of the journal Evolution, Medicine and Public Health: "Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed babies. The baby isn't consciously trying to halt Mom's fertility, Haig explains. But if that happens, it ups the likelihood that the baby's genes will be passed along to the next generation. In other words, the drive to wake Mom (or Dad) up is an evolutionary one: Babies that scream and suckle in the wee hours are more likely to survive and have children themselves”

He said this suggests waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mother's amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sibling and enhancing infant survival.

His study adds: "Short delays until the birth of a younger sib are associated with increased mortality of infants and toddlers, especially in environments of resource scarcity and rampant infectious disease.

"More frequent and more intense nursing, especially at night, is associated with prolonged infertility.

"Natural selection will have preserved suckling and sleeping behaviours of infants that suppress ovarian function in the mothers because infants have benefited from delay of the next birth.

"Maternal fatigue can be seen as an integral part of an infant's strategy to extend the birth interval.

"Breast feeding has many virtues but, for many mothers, a good night's sleep is not counted among them."

Any way this study finding sounds crazy, but seems to have some fact in it. 

HEALTHY TEETH WILL IMPROVE SPORTS PERFORMANCE



A study, published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, showed a fifth of athletes said their oral health damaged their training and performance for the Games.

At the conference in London, dentists said tooth pain could disrupt sleep and training and that inflammation of the gums could affect the rest of the body, impairing performance.

It is not unusual for poor oral health to have wider effects. A regular floss, a bottle of mouthwash and good brushing technique are not going to transform a weekend jogger into an Olympian.

Doctors with GB Boxing are already trying to improve dental hygiene after noticing poor oral health had affected training.

Dr. Mike Loose, who has worked with the GB boxing team for17years and is a consultant at the English Institute of Sport, told that: “I’ve become aware over the years that dental problems have been interfering with training. It stops them getting that little bit fitter and may have a consequence when they get into the ring and box."

He says things are now improving after regular dental checks were introduced, even if they are not always popular with the boxers.

"They don't like going to the dentist. They'd much rather be training. However, it has made a difference to their teeth and they are spending less time away from their training, and that will make them a better boxer.

"They may not appreciate it now, but hopefully they'll appreciate when they've got a gold medal round their neck in 2016 Olympics.

Monday, 14 April 2014

DISRESPECT TO CADAVERS AT CALICUT MEDICAL COLLAGE



Disrespect to cadavers at calicut medical collage. Parts of cadavers like limbs and head were seen near the gust house of Calicut medical collage. It seems the parts were dissected and used for teaching purposes. As a rule after teaching purposes it should be  properly buried but here it is thrown like other wastes.

According to medical  collage  principal they had sent the cadavers for proper burial 3 months earlier and some mysterious activity being suspected in this case. He already complained to the police for proper investigation.

Anyway whoever may be the suspect, this activity is mere disrespect to souls of those people destined to be study materials and  to their relatives.


Sunday, 13 April 2014

MAJORITY OF CANCER CASES IN THE WORLD ARE FROM INDIA & CHINA:NEW STUDY



China and India face the maximum risk of cancer, according to experts. It’s to be noted that China and India are the two most populous countries of the world.

A report in The Lancet Oncology said that tobacco-use, belated diagnosis and unequal access to healthcare facilities are the main reasons behind the rise of cancer in India. In China, one out of every five deaths is due to cancer– second only to cardiovascular ailments – according to the study. The problem is compounded by misplaced faith in traditional medicine and low awareness.

In India, around a million new cases are diagnosed each year, a tally which will reach 1.7 million by 2035 and deaths due to cancer are 600,000-700,000 each year. The study found that while incidence of cancer in the Indian population is lower than Europe or the US, the mortality rates are higher. Fewer than 30% of the population survive cancer for more than 5 years after the diagnosis while 66% deaths occur among people aged between 30 and 69.

The most common cancer killer in India is breast cancer while 40% of cases are attributable to tobacco use. Diagnosis is a big problem along with lack of cancer care facilities in the northern, central and eastern regions of the countries which reflects the nation’s asymmetrical healthcare resources. For example, in rural India, three out of four cancer cases are found by private practitioners who have no medical qualifications whatsoever.

Problems in India

Affordability and extreme shortage of doctors and healthcare workers are major obstacles to progress.

Socio-cultural factors such as castes, gender inequality, low regard for health as a priority, cancer fatalism, blind faith in traditional methods of healing, religious dynamics, and widespread superstitions all impede anti-cancer progress and need widespread education to be addressed.

Novel approaches that are simple, affordable, safe, and with a minimum need for monitoring is needed to improve cancer outcomes fora large sub-section of the population. Presently India lacks it.

Development of cancer registries and a prospective national cancer plan including a focus on prevention (particularly anti-tobacco measures), screening, early diagnosis and the most cost-effective therapies are urgently needed to combat the problem in India


Friday, 11 April 2014

BEWARE! YOUR SOAP CAN FILL YOUR NOSE WITH HARMFUL BACTERIA



Your daily soap can make your nose a store house of bacteria. An anti-microbial agent found in common household soaps, shampoos and tooth pastes may be finding its way inside human noses, where it promotes the colonization of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and could predispose some people to infection.

“Triclosan, a man-made compound used in a range of anti-bacterial personal care products such as soaps, tooth pastes, kitchen surfaces, clothes and medical equipment, was found in nasal passages of 41 percent of adults sampled,” said Blaise Boles, an assistant professor at University of Michigan.

A higher proportion of subjects with triclosan also had S. aureus colonisation.

S. aureus could promote infection in some populations such as people undergoing surgery.

Triclosan has been around for the past 40 years and has been incorporated into many anti-bacterial household products within the past decade.

Other studies have found traces of triclosan in human fluids including serum, urine and milk. Some previous researchers have found that high concentrations of triclosan can disrupt the endocrine system and decrease heart and skeletal muscle function.

It is really common in hand soaps, toothpastes and mouth washes but there is no evidence it does a better job than regular soap.

“Our data suggests are-evaluation of triclosan in consumer products is urgently needed,” the authors wrote in a study published in mBio, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

'RAIL TRACK THERAPY'IN INDONESIA



A new craze has emerged among some of the people of Jakarta in Indonesia that an ailing patient can be relieved of his sickness by lying down across the railway lines. They believe that the low-voltage electric current in the tracks will cure them as it passes through their bodies. According to local media reports, these people believe it can cure all kinds of diseases, from diabetes to high-blood pressure to insomnia.

Until recently around 50 people used to visit the railway tracks daily to seek this therapy. In order to curb this dangerous practice the Railway officials have erected signs warning of the dangers of the fad, threatened penalties of a three-month jail term and fines equivalent of £1,200 for those who flout the ban on the practice. After this the numbers have dropped but some people still remain undeterred and come looking for free “electric therapy."

This “treatment” became popular in Indonesia because of the story of experience of a Chinese man who is disabled and decided to commit suicide. The disabled man had lain down on the tracks to commit suicide, but claimed the “track therapy” had instead cured him.

Health Medical experts say there is no evidence lying on the rails does any good. Crazy world! Isn’t it?

Thursday, 10 April 2014

PATHOLOGY PAPER 1-MARCH 2014-2ND MBBS KUHS




Q.P. Code: 203001                                  Reg.no:……………….

Second Professional MBBS Degree Examinations, March 2014

Clinical Pathology and General Pathology-Paper I

Time: 2 Hours                                     Total Marks: 40


  • Answer all questions
  • Draw diagrams wherever necessary

Essay: (8)

1. Describe thrombosis. Describe the pathogenesis and pathology of arterial and venous thrombosis (2+3+3=8)


Short essay: (6)

2. A 30 years old man presented with tiredness and numbness of feet. Investigations showed Hb 6 g/dl TC 3500/c.mm. MCV 104fl. Answer the following:


What is your diagnosis?Describe the peripheral blood pictureWhat are the causes of this condition (1+3+2=6)

Short notes: (4×4=16)

3. Apoptosis

4. Urinary casts

5. Oncogenes

6. Ghon complex


Answer briefly: (4×2=8)

7. Endogenous pigments

8.  Constituents of normal seminal fluid

9. Vascular changes in inflammation

10. Opportunistic infections


Answer in single sentence: (4×0.5=2)

11. Define hyperplasia

12. List two salient CSF findings in TB meningitis

13. Name two causes of proteinuria

14. Define dystrophic calcification with an example

LOW DOSE ASPIRIN WILL PREVENT PRE-ECLAMPSIA



Pregnant women at a high risk for the potentially fatal complication preeclampsia should take low-dose aspirin after their first trimester, according to a government-backed panel.

The draft recommendation from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is based on a review of the evidence that found low-dose aspirin reduced the likelihood of developing the condition and its complications.

Preeclampsia is a condition that occurs in 2 to 8 percent of pregnancies. It's defined by the onset of high blood pressure and high urine protein levels during pregnancy, according to the USPSTF.

The condition is one of the leading causes of maternal death worldwide. It's also responsible for 15 percent of preterm births in the U.S.

They found that taking a low-dose aspirin reduced the risk of preeclampsia by 24 percent. It also reduced the risk of preterm birth by 14 percent and the risk that the baby would grow too slowly in the womb by 20 percent.

Women with one high risk factor should take a low-dose (81 milligram) aspirin every day after 12 weeks of pregnancy, the panel advises. The same goes for women who have multiple moderate risk factors.

High risk factors include prior preeclampsia, having twins or multiple babies, high blood pressure, diabetes and having kidney or autoimmune diseases. Moderate risk factors include first time pregnancy, obesity, being older than 35 years and being African American or of low socioeconomic status.

DRINKING MILK WILL REDUCE THE RISK OF OSTEO ARTHRITIS IN WOMEN



Milk maybe a useful weapon against arthritis of the knee for women, but the same can't be said for yogurt or cheese, a new study says.

The more low-fat or fat-free milk women drank, the slower the progression of osteoarthritis of the knee, according to the study funded by the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Milk consumption did not show the same benefit for men, however.

The study also found that women who ate cheese actually saw an increase in knee OA progression but yogurt did not impact OA progression in men or women.

OA is a common, degenerative joint disease that causes pain and swelling of joints in the hand, hips, or knee. While medical evidence points to obesity, joint injury, and repetitive use from some sports as risk factors for incident knee OA, risks associated with OA progression remain unclear.

"Milk consumption plays an important role in bone health," said lead author Dr. Bing Lu, from Brigham& Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.

"Our study is the largest study to investigate the impact of dairy intake in the progression of knee OA," Lu said.

For the study, 2,148 participants with knee OA were recruited. At the start of the study dietary data was collected and joint space width was measured by x-ray to evaluate OA progression.

Subjects included 888 men and 1,260 women who were followed-up at12, 24, 36, and 48 months.

As the intake of milk increased from none to less than 3, 4-6, and more than 7 glasses per week, the joint space width in women also decreased by 0.38mm, 0.29mm,0.29mm and 0.26mm, respectively.

Results persisted even after adjusting for disease severity, body mass index (BMI) and dietary factors. No association between milk consumption and joint space width decrease was reported in men.

"Our findings indicate that women who frequently drink milk may reduce the progression of OA," said Lu.

The results were published in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) journal, Arthritis Care & Research.

Monday, 7 April 2014

NAMO & RAGAFLAM -ELECTION SPECIAL TABLETS IN INDIA




Namo and Ragaflam tablets, named after BJP's Narendra Modi and Congress's Rahul Gandhi, are crowding pharmacy shelves. Neither Modi nor Rahul may have all the answers to what ails the nation, but generic drugs named after them are certainly getting people's votes.

Namo tablets are a composition of nimuslide and paracetamol that treat fever and headache, Ragaflam with its mix of dicoflenac and paracetamol gives quick relief from pain.

Around 20 lakh Namo and Ragaflam tablets have been circulated across the country and the demand for them is growing, said a pharmaceutical executive. Accidently, Namo tablet has been priced at Rs 36 per strip which is six rupees less than commonly used Alkem’s Sumo tablets, probably the reason behind the increase in the sales. A Gurgaon based ICI Healthcare’s director Naveen Jain said that for the first time they have tried selling medicines after two leading politicians using their brand value and exclaimed that the move has been successful.

Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Assam and Chhattisgarh are some of the states where Namo and Ragaflam tablets are doing well.

Apart from tablets, BJP’s Prime Ministerial candidate Narendra Modi also has a pain relieving panacea called ‘NaMonigel’ namedafter him.

Didi Digene to cure indigestion or Lalu Syrupto get relief from cold and cough, could be the next drugs in line.


Sunday, 6 April 2014

ABOUT THE WOMAN WHO CRIES BLOOD TEARS




Yaritza Oliva, a 20-year-old from the city of Purranque (Chile), cries blood red tears several times a day after being afflicted by a mysterious condition.

After seeking medical assistance, she was prescribed eye drops to ease the burning pain she said was ‘indescribable’. Her local hospital ruled out both an eye infection and conjunctivitis and believe she may be suffering from a rare condition known as haemolacria, although it is yet to be officially diagnosed.

Several case of haemolacria have surfaced in recent years, although very little is known about the condition or what causes it. Her father has now appealed for donations to help his daughter, who now refuses to leave her house, to get the appropriate medical care she needs. Please put your hands over your hearts, see our situation and help my daughter,’ he said. He hopes her condition can be studied properly by experts following a wave of donations from across the country.

Few things about haemolacria:

Since the 16th century, doctors have reported cases of people who cry blood. Some once considered haemolacria, it seems to be an extremely rare disorder that causes tears that are partially or entirely made of blood, something akin to stigmata, but doctors now have a bit of a better understanding of why some shed bloody tears. Yet, in many cases it remains a mystery .Here are a few things we know:

1. Hormone changes can cause bloody tears- Occult haemolacria in fertile women seems to be induced by hormones, whereas haemolacria most often is provoked by local factors like bacterial conjunctivitis, environmental damage and injuries

2. Spontaneous cases are rare

3. Haemolacria normally disappears

4. Injuries also cause haemolacria

A little is known, so the condition needs more study to find out appropriate treatment regimen. I hope this girl will relieve soon, and readers please pray for her.

FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY- MARCH 2014-2ND MBBS KUHS



Q.P Code: 207001                                     Reg. no:…………..
Second Professional MBBS Degree Examinations, March 2014
Forensic medicine & Toxicology
Time: 2 Hours                                         Total Marks: 40

  • Answer all questions
  • Draw diagrams whenever necessary

Essay: (7)
1. A forty years old man’s body is brought for post mortem. An oblique ligature mark is present over the neck. Dry salivary stain over right angle of mouth. Hyoid bone is intact. Answer the following:

  • What is your probable opinion regarding cause of death
  • Difference between hanging and strangulation
  • How will you differentiate ante mortem hanging from post mortem hanging (2+2+2+1=7)


Short notes: (5×3=15)
2. Color changes in contusion
3. Procedure in admission of an insane person in a mental asylum
4. Changes of body in putrefaction
5. Mercuria lentis
6. Intra cranial hemorrhage

Answer briefly: (5×2=10)
7. Carboluria
8. Burtonian line
9. Calibre of a fire arm
10. Cadaveric spasm
11. Disputed paternity

Differentiate between: (2×2=4)
12. Ante mortem and post mortem bruise
13. Arsenic poisoning and cholera

Draw and label: (2×2=4)
14. Different types of finger prints
15. Ligature mark pattern in strangulation




MICROBIOLOGY PAPER II-2014 MARCH-2ND MBBS KUHS



Q.P Code: 206001                                     Reg. no:…………..
Second Professional MBBS Degree Examinations, March 2014
Microbiology- Paper II
Time: 2 Hours                                         Total Marks: 40
  • Answer all questions
  • Draw diagrams whenever necessary
Essay: (10)
1. Read the following clinical history and answer the following questions
A one year old child presented with h/o inability to move the limbs associated with neck stiffness following a bout of fever. Immunization history was not available. O/E the child had flaccid paralysis.
  • What is the probable clinical diagnosis and name the etiological agent
  • Describe the pathogenesis of the disease
  • How it is diagnosed in the lab and mention the prophylaxis available (2+3+3+2=10)

Short essay: (2×5=10)
2. Life cycle of dracunculsis medinensis
3. Dengue hemorrhage fever

Short notes: (10×2=20)
4. Otomycosis
5. Cyst of giardia
6. Acanthamoeba
7. Intermediate and definitive host for toxoplasma gondii
8. Hydatid cyst
9. Egg of schistoma hematobium
10. Eclipse phase in viral replication
11. Significance of p24 antigen
12. Enumerate enterically transmitted hepatitis viruses
13. Cryptosporidium parvum